India’s health care sector provides a wide range of quality of care, from globally acclaimed hospitals to facilities that deliver care of unacceptably low quality. Efforts to improve the quality of care are particularly challenged by the lack of reliable data on quality and by technical difficulties in measuring quality. Ongoing efforts in the public and private sectors aim to improve the quality of data, develop better measures and understanding of the quality of care, and develop innovative solutions to long-standing challenges. We summarize priorities and the challenges faced by efforts to improve the quality of care. We also highlight lessons learned from recent efforts to measure and improve that quality, based on the articles on quality of care in India that are published in this issue of Health Affairs. The rapidly changing profile of diseases in India and rising chronic disease burden make it urgent for state and central governments to collaborate with researchers and agencies that implement programs to improve health care to further the quality agenda.