For the best health care to be provided in emergency settings, it must be based on the best available science. There are about 136 million visits to emergency departments (EDs) in the United States annually. Many of the nation’s most critically ill patients are first stabilized and treated in EDs—the point of origin for nearly half of all medical intensive care unit admissions and a fourth of all surgical intensive care unit admissions. This article explores the role of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in developing and funding research in emergency care and in training the next generation of emergency care researchers. Recognizing that effective emergency care research spans multiple organ systems and disciplines, the NIH established the Office of Emergency Care Research in December 2011 to facilitate and coordinate funding opportunities relevant to research and research training in emergency settings. Because the NIH funds education, basic research, and large clinical trials, it plays a key role in improving emergency care.